Skip to main content


ESC - Assignment questions -unit 4

I.CONTRACTS 1.Explain the engineering contracts along with their advantages and Disadvantages Item rate contract and Percentage rate contract
2.Explain tender notice and tender documents
3.Discuss different categories of contract in detail and differentiate them with respect to their important characteristics.
4. What is contract document and mention the documents to be attached to the contract agreement?
5. Define the terms : Conditions of contract and Arbitration
6. Explain the Item rate contract and percentage rate contract along with their advantages and disadvantages
7. Distinguish between lump sum contract and item rate contract
8. Explain the B.O.O.T. mode of Project development.
9. State the purpose of penalties in contract agreements?
10.What is EMD and when it is forfeited?
11. Differentiate between administrative approval and technical sanction.
1. What are the different types of valuations? Explain in detail.
2. Explain the different methods of depreciation.
3. What i…
Recent posts

Detailed Estimation for Buildings

The detailed estimation of building quantities like earth work, foundation concrete, DPC, brickwork in plinth and superstructure, R.C.C.etc. can be worked out by using different  methods. 

Following are the three different methods used for estimating building works: 1.Long wall – short wall method or Individual wall Method (out-to-out and in-to-in method)  2.Centreline method. 3.Partly centre line and short wall method. 1. Long Wall – Short Wall Method  In this method, the wall along the length of room is considered to be long wall while the wall perpendicular to long wall is said to be short wall.

To get the length of longwall or shortwall, calculate first the centre line lengths of individual walls. Then the length of long wall, (out to out) may be calculated after adding half breadth at each end to its centre line length. Thus the length of short wall (in-to-in) measured into in and may be found by deducting half breadth from its centre line length at each end. The length of long wall usua…


Engineer has to work out the value of an existing property for various purpose. Valuation is needed for wealth tax, municipal taxation, etc Valuation is an art of judgment based on experience and relevant statistical data to forecast the value of a property at present.

The estimated value of property depends upon its power to serve man’s need, location, amenities, purpose and supply and demand of a property type. It continuously varies with age, physical state and characteristics.valuation of the property is always done both by the seller and prospective buyer so as to arrive at a reasonable price
Terms used in Valuation 1.Cost and Value: Cost It is the amount of expenditure incurred to produce or acquire a commodity having a value. To this cost of Product, agents’ commission and stamp duty etc. is also added. Value is the price estimated to be realized in a sale proceed between a willing buyer and willing seller. 2.RateableValue: net annual letting value of a property obtained after dedu…

Contracts and Tenders

Contract is an agreement between two or than two parties in which one is agreed to provide goods and services to other for which he will get the return in the some form. The contract is legal document and binding on both the parties. 2. Types of Contract The forms in which return for providing goods and services is delivered, are called type of contracts. There are different types of contracts which can be employed in any of the delivery methods. Owner can pay the money to the contractor, in lump-sum, based on measured work with unit price, based on percentage plus quantity involved. In the following, we shall briefly discuss the different type of contract. 2.1. Lump-sum contract: This is a single fixed price contract. In this contract, contractor agrees to perform specified job for fixed sum. The owner provides the contractor exact specification of the work. In this contract both the parties try to fix the conditions of the work as precisely as possible.
Following are the adva…


Principal Plane is the Plane in which  no Shear Stresses are acting. The normal stresses which are acting on Principal Plane are called as Principal Stress.
Stresses on Oblique Plane 
The normal stresses (sx and sy) and the shear stress (txy) are acting vary smoothly on a body, the normal and tangential stresses or shear stress acting on a Oblique plane making a rotation of an angle q to the vertical face are given by,

Normal stress on inclined plane  
sq = (sx+sy) / 2 + (sx-sy)/2cos2q + txysin2q  -- (1)

Shear stress in the inclined plane 
tq =(sx-sy)/2sin2q -txycos2q - (2)

In above equations, there exist a couple of particular angles where the stresses take on special values.
First, there exists an angle qp where the shear stress txy becomes zero. That angle is found by setting txy to zero in the above shear transformation equation and solving for q (set equal to qp). The result is, the principal palenes are located at
tanqp = 2 xy / (x - y)  ---(3)
The principal stresses are 
--(4) The angl…